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J Adhes Dent. 2019;21(2):159-165. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.a42306.

Grape Seed Extract Reduces Active Gelatinases Using an Etch-and-Rinse Mode Universal Adhesive.



To examine the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) pretreatment on the reduction of active gelatinases when using universal adhesives in etch-and-rinse mode.


Fifty extracted non-carious human teeth were used in this study. Dentin powder was prepared for analysis of active MMP-2 by ELISA. Resin-dentin slices were prepared for in situ zymography in order to localize active gelatinases by quenched fluorescein-conjugated gelatin under a confocal microscope. Fluorescence intensity was analyzed quantitatively. Specimens were allocated into 6 groups: a non-treated control, phosphoric acid etched (PA), PA followed by Single Bond Universal (SBU, 3M Oral Care) or G-Premio Bond (GPB, GC), and PA followed by GSE for 1 min prior to SBU or GPB. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test at a significance level of 0.05.


Application of the universal adhesives SBU and GPB in etch-and-rinse mode reduced active MMP-2 in dentin matrices. However, the only further significant reduction was found in GPB pre-treated with GSE, as analyzed by ELISA. In situ zymography demonstrated the location of active gelatinases, and fluorescence intensity analysis confirmed significant reduction of active gelatinases in the hybrid layer of GPB pre-teated with GSE compared to GPB alone.


The present study demonstrated the potential advantage of applying GSE to reduce active gelatinases especially at the hybrid layer, with greater benefit achieved for hydrophobic adhesives. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action, analysis of bond strength, and long-term efficacy require further study.


active gelatinases; confocal microscope; etch-and-rinse mode universal adhesive; grape seed extract; in situ zymography


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