Send to

Choose Destination
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 26;6(4):ofz098. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz098. eCollection 2019 Apr.

Impact of an Unsolicited, Standardized Form-Based Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention to Improve Guideline Adherence in the Management of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Author information

Covenant Health, Edmonton, Canada.
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
DynaLIFE Diagnostic Laboratory, Edmonton, Canada.



Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) improve Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) management. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of unsolicited prospective audit and feedback (PAF) using a standardized SAB bundle form on the management of SAB.


Multicenter, pre-post quasi-experimental study of inpatients with SAB. The ASP developed an evidence-based SAB management bundle that included recommendations for infectious diseases consultation, blood culture clearance, appropriate empiric and definitive therapy, echocardiography, adequate treatment duration, and source control where applicable. ASP pharmacists performed PAF using a standardized form outlining bundle components. The primary outcome was bundle component adherence. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, 30-day readmission rate, and in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates.


A total of 199 patients were included (preintervention group, 62; intervention group, 137). Bundle implementation with PAF resulted in significant improvements in infectious diseases consultation (56.5% in preintervention vs 93.4% in intervention group), appropriate definitive antibiotic therapy (83.9% vs 99.3%), ordering echocardiography (72.6% vs 95.6%), and adequate treatment duration (87.0% vs 100%) (all P < .001). Overall bundle adherence increased by 43.8% (P < .001). Readmission and 30-day mortality rates decreased, but this difference did not reach statistical significance.


Unsolicited PAF using a standardized SAB management bundle significantly improved adherence to evidence-based recommendations. This simple yet effective ASP-driven intervention can ensure consistent management of a highly morbid infection.


Antimicrobial stewardship; Staphylococcus aureus; bacteremia

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center