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Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019 Apr 4. doi: 10.1038/s41574-019-0197-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Improving pregnancy outcomes in women with diabetes mellitus: modern management.

Ringholm L1,2,3, Damm P4,5,6, Mathiesen ER4,7,5.

Author information

1
Center for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. enel@dadlnet.dk.
2
Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. enel@dadlnet.dk.
3
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. enel@dadlnet.dk.
4
Center for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Department of Obstetrics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
7
Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Women with pre-existing (type 1 or type 2) diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as congenital malformations, preeclampsia and preterm delivery, compared with women who do not have diabetes mellitus. Approximately half of pregnancies in women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus are complicated by fetal overgrowth, which results in infants who are overweight at birth and at risk of birth trauma and, later in life, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strict glycaemic control with appropriate diet, use of insulin and, if necessary, antihypertensive treatment is the cornerstone of diabetes mellitus management to prevent pregnancy complications. New technology for managing diabetes mellitus is evolving and is changing the management of these conditions in pregnancy. For instance, in Europe, most women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus are treated with insulin analogues before and during pregnancy. Furthermore, many women are on insulin pumps during pregnancy, and the use of continuous glucose monitoring is becoming more frequent. In addition, smartphone application technology is a promising educational tool for pregnant women with diabetes mellitus and their caregivers. This Review covers how modern diabetes mellitus management with appropriate diet, insulin and antihypertensive treatment in patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus can contribute to reducing the risk of pregnancy complications such as congenital malformations, fetal overgrowth, preeclampsia and preterm delivery.

PMID:
30948803
DOI:
10.1038/s41574-019-0197-3

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