Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Apr 9;73(13):1691-1706. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.12.083.

Targeting the Immune System in Atherosclerosis: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
2
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address: zm255@medschl.cam.ac.uk.

Abstract

Atherosclerosis has long been known as an inflammatory disease. However, whether targeting inflammation improves outcomes was unproven until the recent results of CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study). In this review, we reflect on why it has taken a long time to prove the inflammatory hypothesis of atherosclerosis and derive important lessons for the future. In particular, we discuss the off-target immune-modulatory effects of approved cardiovascular therapies, review the attempted anti-inflammatory therapies including the recently published CIRT (Cardiovascular Inflammation Reduction Trial), and discuss the likely reasons for their failures. We further build on CANTOS to review the immune-modulatory therapies for atherosclerosis currently in trials, and discuss the likelihood of their added value as well as the potential hazard associated with their use. We finally argue for a critical approach to the use of animal models, coupled with the use of humans as model organisms to accelerate the identification of the most appropriate targets.

KEYWORDS:

atherosclerosis; clinical trials; immune system; inflammation; therapy

PMID:
30947923
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2018.12.083

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center