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J Med Eng Technol. 2018 Nov;42(8):578-587. doi: 10.1080/03091902.2019.1576794. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Bioimpedance analysis in detecting vascular diseases using blood pooling method.

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a Department of Biomedical Engineering , Helwan University , Cairo , Egypt.


The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, a network of vessels and blood. Blood vessels are the tubular structure carrying blood through the tissues and organs. Disorders in this vast network can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or fatal. Blood pooling method has been used to measure the change in blood volume of the thigh, abdomen, limbs, etc. with the pressure change. This method occludes the vessel to prevent blood flowing out of the segment being investigated. In recent years, bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has become a popular modality in detecting various body diseases since it is a non-invasive, low-cost and simple for usage. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to extract the properties of a blood vessel (e.g. compliance) from which vascular diseases can be detected by analyzing the difference in bioimpedance measurements calculated before and after blood pooling. The paper presents a simple mathematical model to describe vessel compliance and its influence on bioimpedance measurements. Furthermore, the finite element model of human forearm is constructed, in which various vascular disorders are simulated and the impedances are measured before and after blood pooling. The simulation results clarify the ability of BIA in estimating vascular abnormalities, depending on the changes caused by diseases in vessel compliance, which are reflected on bioimpedance measurements using blood pooling method.


BIA; Cardiovascular; blood pooling; compliance

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