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BMJ. 2019 Apr 3;365:l1161. doi: 10.1136/bmj.l1161.

Prevalence of cervical disease at age 20 after immunisation with bivalent HPV vaccine at age 12-13 in Scotland: retrospective population study.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK timothy.palmer@nhs.net.
2
Information Services Division, NHS Scotland, Glasgow, UK.
3
Health Protection Scotland, Glasgow, UK.
4
School of Health and Life Science, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.
5
Scottish Human Papillomavirus Reference Laboratory, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
6
International Prevention Research Institute, Lyon, France.
7
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
8
Institute of Applied Health Services, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To quantify the effect on cervical disease at age 20 years of immunisation with bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine at age 12-13 years.

DESIGN:

Retrospective population study, 1988-96.

SETTING:

National vaccination and cervical screening programmes in Scotland.

PARTICIPANTS:

138 692 women born between 1 January 1988 and 5 June 1996 and who had a smear test result recorded at age 20.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Effect of vaccination on cytology results and associated histological diagnoses from first year of screening (while aged 20), calculated using logistic regression.

RESULTS:

138 692 records were retrieved. Compared with unvaccinated women born in 1988, vaccinated women born in 1995 and 1996 showed an 89% reduction (95% confidence interval 81% to 94%) in prevalent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or worse (from 0.59% (0.48% to 0.71%) to 0.06% (0.04% to 0.11%)), an 88% reduction (83% to 92%) in CIN grade 2 or worse (from 1.44% (1.28% to 1.63%) to 0.17% (0.12% to 0.24%)), and a 79% reduction (69% to 86%) in CIN grade 1 (from 0.69% (0.58% to 0.63%) to 0.15% (0.10% to 0.21%)). Younger age at immunisation was associated with increasing vaccine effectiveness: 86% (75% to 92%) for CIN grade 3 or worse for women vaccinated at age 12-13 compared with 51% (28% to 66%) for women vaccinated at age 17. Evidence of herd protection against high grade cervical disease was found in unvaccinated girls in the 1995 and 1996 cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS:

Routine vaccination of girls aged 12-13 years with the bivalent HPV vaccine in Scotland has led to a dramatic reduction in preinvasive cervical disease. Evidence of clinically relevant herd protection is apparent in unvaccinated women. These data are consistent with the reduced prevalence of high risk HPV in Scotland. The bivalent vaccine is confirmed as being highly effective vaccine and should greatly reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The findings will need to be considered by cervical cancer prevention programmes worldwide.

PMID:
30944092
PMCID:
PMC6446188
DOI:
10.1136/bmj.l1161
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: KP has received travel monies from both Merck and GSK to attend conferences. KC’s institution has received monies to deliver research, or associated consumables to support research, from: Qiagen, Hologic, Selfscreen, GeneFirst, Euroimmun, Cepheid, Genomica, and LifeRiver. No personal conflicts of interest are declared.

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