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J Card Surg. 2019 May;34(5):329-336. doi: 10.1111/jocs.14038. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Biomarkers associated with 30-day readmission and mortality after pediatric congenital heart surgery.

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The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
Department of Epidemiology, Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine, Hanover, New Hampshire.
Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital and Florida Hospital for Children, Saint Petersburg, Tampa and Orlando, Florida.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, New Hampshire.



Novel cardiac biomarkers serum (suppression of tumorigenicity [ST2]) and Galectin-3 may be associated with an increased likelihood of important events after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to explore the association between pre- and postoperative serum biomarker levels and 30-day readmission or mortality for pediatric patients.


We prospectively enrolled pediatric patients <18 years of age who underwent at least one cardiac surgical operation at Johns Hopkins Children's Center from 2010 to 2014 (N = 162). Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery and at the end of bypass. We evaluated the association between pre- and postoperative Galectin-3 and ST2 with 30-day readmission or mortality, using backward stepwise logistic regression, adjusting for covariates based on the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Risk Model.


In our cohort, 21 (12.9%) patients experienced readmission or mortality 30-days from discharge. Before adjustment, preoperative ST2 terciles demonstrated a strong association with readmission and/or mortality after surgery (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17-3.66 and OR: 4.37; 95% CI: 1.31-14.57). After adjustment for covariates based on the STS congenital risk model, Galectin-3 postoperative mid-tercile was significantly associated with 30-day readmission or mortality (OR: 6.17; 95% CI: 1.50-0.43) as was the highest tercile of postoperative ST2 (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.06-23.32).


Elevated pre-and postoperative levels of ST2 and Galectin-3 are associated with increased risk of readmission or mortality after pediatric heart surgery. These clinically available biomarkers can be used for improved risk stratification and may guide improved patient care management.


biomarkers; pediatric congenital heart disease; prediction; readmission

[Available on 2020-05-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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