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Front Immunol. 2019 Mar 19;10:408. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00408. eCollection 2019.

Adipose Tissue in Persons With HIV Is Enriched for CD4+ T Effector Memory and T Effector Memory RA+ Cells, Which Show Higher CD69 Expression and CD57, CX3CR1, GPR56 Co-expression With Increasing Glucose Intolerance.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
2
Center for Translational Immunology and Infectious Disease, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
3
Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
4
Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States.
5
Tennessee Center for AIDS Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
6
Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
7
VANTAGE, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
8
Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia.
9
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
10
Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States.

Abstract

Chronic T cell activation and accelerated immune senescence are hallmarks of HIV infection, which may contribute to the increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases in people living with HIV (PLWH). T lymphocytes play a central role in modulating adipose tissue inflammation and, by extension, adipocyte energy storage and release. Here, we assessed the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell profiles in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and blood of non-diabetic (n = 9; fasting blood glucose [FBG] < 100 mg/dL), pre-diabetic (n = 8; FBG = 100-125 mg/dL) and diabetic (n = 9; FBG ≥ 126 mg/dL) PLWH, in addition to non- and pre-diabetic, HIV-negative controls (n = 8). SAT was collected by liposuction and T cells were extracted by collagenase digestion. The proportion of naïve (TNai) CD45RO-CCR7+, effector memory (TEM) CD45RO+CCR7-, central memory (TCM) CD45RO+CCR7+, and effector memory revertant RA+(TEMRA) CD45RO-CCR7- CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry. CD4+ and CD8+ TEM and TEMRA were significantly enriched in SAT of PLWH compared to blood. The proportions of SAT CD4+ and CD8+ memory subsets were similar across metabolic status categories in the PLWH, but CD4+ T cell expression of the CD69 early-activation and tissue residence marker, particularly on TEM cells, increased with progressive glucose intolerance. Use of t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) identified a separate group of predominantly CD69lo TEM and TEMRA cells co-expressing CD57, CX3CR1, and GPR56, which were significantly greater in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Expression of the CX3CR1 and GPR56 markers indicate these TEM and TEMRA cells may have anti-viral specificity. Compared to HIV-negative controls, SAT from PLWH had an increased CD8:CD4 ratio, but the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ memory subsets was similar irrespective of HIV status. Finally, whole adipose tissue from PLWH had significantly higher expression of TLR2, TLR8, and multiple chemokines potentially relevant to immune cell homing compared to HIV-negative controls with similar glucose tolerance.

KEYWORDS:

CX3CR1; GPR56; HIV—human immunodeficiency virus; T effector memory cells; TEMRA; adipose tissue; diabetes mellitus; memory T cells

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