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Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2019 May;27(2):179-190. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2018.12.001.

Hormonal, Medical, and Nonsurgical Aspects of Gender Affirmation.

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Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Wisconsin, 1100 Delaplaine Ct., Madison, WI 53715, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, University of Wisconsin, Medical Foundation Centennial Building, Room 4170, 1685 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, USA.


Although the acronym LGBTQ is often used as a catchall label for sexual and gender minorities, transgender people have unique and individual health needs and unfortunately experience significant health disparities. This article reviews essential terminology and concepts relevant to discussions of gender and gender identity, practical tips for changes that can be made on the clinical and institutional levels in order to create a welcoming and safe environment for transgender patients, as well as current recommendations for the provision of gender-affirming medical therapy.


Cultural competency; Gender affirmation; Hormonal therapy; Transgender

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