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Int J Legal Med. 2019 Apr 2. doi: 10.1007/s00414-019-02052-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Differentiation of endogenous and exogenous γ-Hydroxybutyrate in rat and human urine by GC/C/IRMS.

Author information

1
College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, 01369, South Korea.
2
Innovative Drug Center, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.
3
Department of Marine Sciences and convergent technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, 15588, South Korea.
4
National Forensic Service, Wonju, South Korea.
5
CHEM.I.NET,Ltd, Room 302, 773-3, Mok-dong, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
6
Department of Marine Sciences and convergent technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, 15588, South Korea. shinkh@hanyang.ac.kr.
7
College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, 01369, South Korea. homepage2600@duksung.ac.kr.
8
Innovative Drug Center, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, South Korea. homepage2600@duksung.ac.kr.

Abstract

Gamma (γ)-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been reported to be an endogenous compound in the mammalian brain. It used to treat symptoms of alcohol, opioid, and drug withdrawal and cataplexy of narcolepsy. However, it is often used for criminal purposes because it is colorless, tasteless, and has short half-life. For this reason, there is a need for a method of distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous GHB administration. Therefore, urine from rat before administration of GHB and GHB urine after the single intraperitoneal injection of GHB as 60 mg/100 g were collected from Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old, 10 males and females). Negative control urine, urine from individuals suspected of taking GHB, and urine from victims who were GHB-involved crime were collected. In urine samples, GHB was extracted with two-step SPE and collected fraction was derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/C/IRMS. In GC/MS and GC/C/IRMS analysis of rat urine, there was a statistically significant difference between urine from rat before administration of GHB and GHB rat urine (p < 0.05). In GC/MS analysis of human urine samples, there was no significant difference among human urine groups (negative control, suspects' urine, and victims' urine), but in GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urine samples, there was a statistically significant difference among human urine groups (p = 0.0001). Through these results, GC/C/IRMS can be more effective tool to identify endogenous and exogenous GHB in urine than GC/MS. This study can build a drug management system in forensic investigation agency and offer interpretation method to forensic science and court.

KEYWORDS:

Endogenous; Exogenous; GC/C/IRMS, δ13C values; GC/MS; GHB; Gamma (γ)-Hydroxybutyrate

PMID:
30937594
DOI:
10.1007/s00414-019-02052-x

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