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Nutrients. 2019 Mar 29;11(4). pii: E734. doi: 10.3390/nu11040734.

Maternal and Early Life Iron Intake and Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes: A Danish Case-Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Copenhagen Diabetes Research Center (CPH-DIRECT), Department of Paediatrics, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev, Denmark. s.u.thorsen@gmail.com.
2
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. s.u.thorsen@gmail.com.
3
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. LUR@ssi.dk.
4
Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland. LUR@ssi.dk.
5
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. ANNE@ssi.dk.
6
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. SFO@ssi.dk.
7
Copenhagen Diabetes Research Center (CPH-DIRECT), Department of Paediatrics, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev, Denmark. Jannet.Svensson@regionh.dk.
8
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Jannet.Svensson@regionh.dk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Iron overload has been associated with diabetes. Studies on iron exposure during pregnancy and in early life and risk of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) are sparse. We investigated whether iron supplementation during pregnancy and early in life were associated with risk of childhood T1D.

METHODS:

In a case-cohort design, we identified up to 257 children with T1D (prevalence 0.37%) from the Danish National Birth Cohort through linkage with the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register. The primary exposure was maternal pure iron supplementation (yes/no) during pregnancy as reported in interview two at 30 weeks of gestation (n = 68,497 with iron supplement data). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) using weighted Cox regression adjusting for multiple confounders. We also examined if offspring supplementation during the first 18 months of life was associated with later risk of T1D.

RESULTS:

Maternal iron supplementation was not associated with later risk of T1D in the offspring HR 1.05 (95% CI: 0.76⁻1.45). Offspring intake of iron droplets during the first 18 months of life was inversely associated with risk of T1D HR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.55⁻1.00) (ptrend = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our large-scale prospective study demonstrated no harmful effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy and in early life in regard to later risk of childhood T1D in the offspring.

KEYWORDS:

diabetes mellitus; fetal programming; infant; iron; newborn; pregnancy; type 1

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