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Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 1;9(1):5422. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-41134-z.

Early pregnancy exposure to endocrine disrupting chemical mixtures are associated with inflammatory changes in maternal and neonatal circulation.

Author information

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, L4001 Women's Hospital, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA.
2
Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA.
3
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA.
4
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA.
5
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48105, USA.
6
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, L4001 Women's Hospital, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA. vasantha@umich.edu.
7
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA. vasantha@umich.edu.
8
Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, 7510 MSRB 1, 1500 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. vasantha@umich.edu.

Abstract

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous, and pregnancy is a sensitive window for toxicant exposure. EDCs may disrupt the maternal immune system, which may lead to poor pregnancy outcomes. Most studies investigate single EDCs, even though "real life" exposures do not occur in isolation. We tested the hypothesis that uniquely weighted mixtures of early pregnancy exposures are associated with distinct changes in the maternal and neonatal inflammasome. First trimester urine samples were tested for 12 phthalates, 12 phenols, and 17 metals in 56 women. Twelve cytokines were measured in first trimester and term maternal plasma, and in cord blood after delivery. Spearman correlations and linear regression were used to relate individual exposures with inflammatory cytokines. Linear regression was used to relate cytokine levels with gestational age and birth weight. Principal component analysis was used to assess the effect of weighted EDC mixtures on maternal and neonatal inflammation. Our results demonstrated that maternal and cord blood cytokines were differentially associated with (1) individual EDCs and (2) EDC mixtures. Several individual cytokines were positively associated with gestational age and birth weight. These observed associations between EDC mixtures and the pregnancy inflammasome may have clinical and public health implications for women of childbearing age.

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