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Toxicol In Vitro. 2019 Aug;58:195-206. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2019.03.038. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Basal but divergent: Clinical implications of differential coagulotoxicity in a clade of Asian vipers.

Author information

1
Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
2
Division of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Einthoven Laboratory for Vascular and Regenerative Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, the Netherlands.
3
Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for TCM Quality and Efficacy, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Avenue, Qixia District, Nanjing 210046, China.
4
Mtoxins, 1111 Washington Ave, Oshkosh, WI 54901, USA.
5
Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau. Electronic address: hfkwok@um.edu.mo.
6
Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address: bgfry@uq.edu.au.

Abstract

Envenomations by Asian pitvipers can induce multiple clinical complications resulting from coagulopathic and neuropathic effects. While intense research has been undertaken for some species, functional coagulopathic effects have been neglected. As these species' venoms affect the blood coagulation cascade we investigated their effects upon the human clotting cascade using venoms of species from the Azemiops, Calloselasma, Deinagkistrodon and Hypnale genera. Calloselasma rhodostoma, Deinagkistrodon acutus, and Hypnale hypnale produced net anticoagulant effects through pseudo-procoagulant clotting of fibrinogen, resulting in weak, unstable, transient fibrin clots. Tropidolaemus wagleri was only weakly pseudo-procoagulant, clotting fibrinogen with only a negligible net anticoagulant effect. Azemiops feae and Tropidolaemus subannulatus did not affect clotting. This is the first study to examine in a phylogenetic context the coagulotoxic effects of related genera of basal Asiatic pit-vipers. The results reveal substantial variation between sister genera, providing crucial information about clinical effects and implications for antivenom cross-reactivity.

PMID:
30930232
DOI:
10.1016/j.tiv.2019.03.038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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