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Nat Genet. 2019 Apr;51(4):636-648. doi: 10.1038/s41588-019-0378-y. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids.

Bentley AR1, Sung YJ2, Brown MR3, Winkler TW4, Kraja AT5, Ntalla I6, Schwander K2, Chasman DI7,8, Lim E9, Deng X9, Guo X10, Liu J11, Lu Y12, Cheng CY13,14,15, Sim X16, Vojinovic D17, Huffman JE18, Musani SK19, Li C20, Feitosa MF5, Richard MA21, Noordam R22, Baker J23, Chen G23, Aschard H24,25, Bartz TM26,27, Ding J28, Dorajoo R29, Manning AK30,31, Rankinen T32, Smith AV33,34, Tajuddin SM35, Zhao W36, Graff M37, Alver M38, Boissel M39, Chai JF16, Chen X40, Divers J41, Evangelou E42,43, Gao C44, Goel A45,46, Hagemeijer Y47, Harris SE48,49, Hartwig FP50,51, He M52, Horimoto ARVR53, Hsu FC41, Hung YJ54,55, Jackson AU56, Kasturiratne A57, Komulainen P58, Kühnel B59,60, Leander K61, Lin KH62, Luan J63, Lyytikäinen LP64,65, Matoba N66, Nolte IM67, Pietzner M68,69, Prins B70, Riaz M71,72, Robino A73, Said MA47, Schupf N74, Scott RA63, Sofer T31,75, Stancáková A76, Takeuchi F77, Tayo BO78, van der Most PJ67, Varga TV79, Wang TD80,81,82, Wang Y83, Ware EB84, Wen W85, Xiang YB86, Yanek LR87, Zhang W88,89, Zhao JH63, Adeyemo A23, Afaq S88, Amin N17, Amini M67, Arking DE90, Arzumanyan Z10, Aung T13,15,91, Ballantyne C92,93, Barr RG94, Bielak LF36, Boerwinkle E3,95, Bottinger EP12, Broeckel U96, Brown M6,97, Cade BE75, Campbell A98, Canouil M39, Charumathi S13,14, Chen YI10, Christensen K99; COGENT-Kidney Consortium, Concas MP73, Connell JM100, de Las Fuentes L2,101, de Silva HJ102, de Vries PS3, Doumatey A23, Duan Q103, Eaton CB104, Eppinga RN47, Faul JD84, Floyd JS27,105, Forouhi NG63, Forrester T106, Friedlander Y107, Gandin I108, Gao H42, Ghanbari M17,109, Gharib SA110, Gigante B61, Giulianini F7, Grabe HJ111, Gu CC2, Harris TB112, Heikkinen S76,113, Heng CK114,115, Hirata M116, Hixson JE3, Ikram MA17,117,118; EPIC-InterAct Consortium, Jia Y10, Joehanes R119,120, Johnson C121, Jonas JB122,123, Justice AE37, Katsuya T124,125, Khor CC29, Kilpeläinen TO126,127, Koh WP16,128, Kolcic I129, Kooperberg C130, Krieger JE53, Kritchevsky SB131, Kubo M132, Kuusisto J76, Lakka TA58,113,133, Langefeld CD41, Langenberg C63, Launer LJ112, Lehne B134, Lewis CE135, Li Y2, Liang J83, Lin S5, Liu CT9, Liu J29,136, Liu K137, Loh M88,138,139,140, Lohman KK41, Louie T141, Luzzi A10, Mägi R38, Mahajan A46, Manichaikul AW142, McKenzie CA143, Meitinger T144,145,146, Metspalu A38, Milaneschi Y147, Milani L38, Mohlke KL103, Momozawa Y148, Morris AP46,149, Murray AD150, Nalls MA151,152, Nauck M68,69, Nelson CP71,72, North KE37, O'Connell JR153,154, Palmer ND155, Papanicolau GJ156, Pedersen NL40, Peters A60,157, Peyser PA36, Polasek O129,158,159, Poulter N160, Raitakari OT161,162, Reiner AP130, Renström F79,163, Rice TK2, Rich SS142, Robinson JG164, Rose LM7, Rosendaal FR165, Rudan I166, Schmidt CO167, Schreiner PJ168, Scott WR134,169, Sever P169, Shi Y13, Sidney S170, Sims M19, Smith JA36,84, Snieder H67, Starr JM48,171, Strauch K172,173, Stringham HM56, Tan NYQ13, Tang H174, Taylor KD10, Teo YY16,29,175,176,177, Tham YC13, Tiemeier H17,178, Turner ST179, Uitterlinden AG17,180; Understanding Society Scientific Group, van Heemst D22, Waldenberger M59,60, Wang H31,75, Wang L9, Wang L5, Wei WB181, Williams CA5, Wilson G Sr182, Wojczynski MK5, Yao J10, Young K37, Yu C52, Yuan JM183,184, Zhou J23, Zonderman AB185, Becker DM87, Boehnke M56, Bowden DW155, Chambers JC42,88,89,140,186, Cooper RS78, de Faire U61, Deary IJ48,187, Elliott P88, Esko T38,188, Farrall M45,46, Franks PW79,189,190,191, Freedman BI192, Froguel P39,193, Gasparini P73,108, Gieger C60,194, Horta BL50, Juang JJ81,82, Kamatani Y66, Kammerer CM195, Kato N77, Kooner JS88,89,169,186, Laakso M76, Laurie CC141, Lee IT196,197,198, Lehtimäki T64,65; Lifelines Cohort, Magnusson PKE40, Oldehinkel AJ199, Penninx BWJH147, Pereira AC53, Rauramaa R58, Redline S75, Samani NJ71,72, Scott J169, Shu XO85, van der Harst P47,200, Wagenknecht LE201, Wang JS196,198, Wang YX123, Wareham NJ63, Watkins H45,46, Weir DR84, Wickremasinghe AR57, Wu T52, Zeggini E70,202, Zheng W85, Bouchard C32, Evans MK35, Gudnason V33,34, Kardia SLR36, Liu Y203, Psaty BM27,105,204,205, Ridker PM7,8, van Dam RM16,136, Mook-Kanamori DO165,206, Fornage M3,21, Province MA5, Kelly TN207, Fox ER208, Hayward C18, van Duijn CM17,209, Tai ES16,128,136, Wong TY13,15,91, Loos RJF12,210, Franceschini N37, Rotter JI10, Zhu X83, Bierut LJ211, Gauderman WJ212, Rice K141, Munroe PB6,97, Morrison AC3, Rao DC2, Rotimi CN213, Cupples LA214,215.

Author information

1
Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. amy.bentley@nih.gov.
2
Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
3
Human Genetics Center, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.
4
Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
5
Division of Statistical Genomics, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
6
Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
7
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
8
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
9
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
10
Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.
11
Women's Health Initiative Clinical Coordinating Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
12
Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
13
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
14
Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Academic Medicine Research Institute, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program (Eye ACP), Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.
15
Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
16
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.
17
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
18
Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
19
Jackson Heart Study, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.
20
Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Georgia at Athens College of Public Health, Athens, GA, USA.
21
Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.
22
Internal Medicine, Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
23
Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
24
Centre de Bioinformatique, Biostatistique, et Biologie Intégrative (C3BI), Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
25
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
26
Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
27
Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
28
Center on Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
29
Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore.
30
Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
31
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
32
Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
33
Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland.
34
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
35
Health Disparities Research Section, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, US National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
36
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
37
Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
38
Estonian Genome Center, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
39
CNRS UMR 8199, European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), Institut Pasteur de Lille, University of Lille, Lille, France.
40
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
41
Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
42
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.
43
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina, Greece.
44
Molecular Genetics and Genomics Program, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
45
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
46
Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
47
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands.
48
Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
49
Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
50
Postgraduate Programme in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
51
Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
52
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health for Incubating, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
53
Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
54
Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
55
School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.
56
Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
57
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
58
Foundation for Research in Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, Kuopio, Finland.
59
Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
60
Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
61
Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
62
Ophthalmology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
63
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
64
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere, Finland.
65
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center-Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
66
Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.
67
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen, the Netherlands.
68
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Health), Partner Site Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
69
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
70
Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.
71
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
72
NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK.
73
Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS 'Burlo Garofolo', Trieste, Italy.
74
Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
75
Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
76
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
77
Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
78
Department of Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA.
79
Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
80
Cardiovascular Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
81
National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
82
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
83
Department of Population Quantitative and Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
84
Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
85
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.
86
SKLORG and Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
87
Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
88
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.
89
Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital, Middlesex, UK.
90
McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
91
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program (Eye ACP), Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.
92
Section of Cardiovascular Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
93
Houston Methodist Debakey Heart and Vascular Center, Houston, TX, USA.
94
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
95
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
96
Section of Genomic Pediatrics, Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
97
NIHR Barts Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Centre, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
98
Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
99
Danish Aging Research Center, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
100
Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
101
Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
102
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
103
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
104
Department of Family Medicine and Epidemiology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
105
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
106
UWI Solutions for Developing Countries, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
107
Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
108
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
109
Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
110
Computational Medicine Core, Center for Lung Biology, UW Medicine Sleep Center, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
111
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
112
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
113
Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
114
Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
115
Khoo Teck Puat-National University Children's Medical Institute, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.
116
Laboratory of Genome Technology, Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Japan.
117
Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
118
Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
119
Hebrew SeniorLife, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
120
Framingham Heart Study, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
121
Collaborative Health Studies Coordinating Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
122
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
123
Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
124
Department of Clinical Gene Therapy, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.
125
Department of Geriatric and General Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.
126
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
127
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
128
Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.
129
Department of Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
130
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, WA, USA.
131
Sticht Center for Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Prevention, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
132
RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.
133
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
134
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Molecular Sciences, Imperial College, London, UK.
135
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
136
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
137
Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
138
Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, Singapore.
139
Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
140
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
141
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
142
Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
143
Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Caribbean Institute for Health Research, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.
144
Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
145
Institute of Human Genetics, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
146
Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
147
Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
148
Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.
149
Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
150
Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
151
Data Tecnica International, Glen Echo, MD, USA.
152
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD, USA.
153
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
154
Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
155
Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
156
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
157
Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.
158
Psychiatric Hospital 'Sveti Ivan', Zagreb, Croatia.
159
Gen-info, Ltd, Zagreb, Croatia.
160
School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.
161
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
162
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
163
Department of Biobank Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
164
Department of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
165
Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
166
Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
167
Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
168
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
169
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK.
170
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.
171
Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
172
Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.
173
Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
174
Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
175
Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
176
Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
177
NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
178
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
179
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
180
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
181
Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
182
Jackson Heart Study, School of Public Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA.
183
Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
184
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, UPMC Hillman Cancer, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
185
Behavioral Epidemiology Section, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, US National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
186
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.
187
Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
188
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, MA, USA.
189
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
190
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
191
OCDEM, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
192
Nephrology, Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
193
Department of Genomics of Common Disease, Imperial College, London, UK.
194
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany.
195
Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
196
Endocrinology and Metabolism, Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
197
School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
198
School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
199
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Groningen, the Netherlands.
200
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, the Netherlands.
201
Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
202
Institute of Translational Genomics, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
203
Public Health Sciences, Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
204
Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
205
Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.
206
Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
207
Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.
208
Cardiology, Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.
209
Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
210
Mindich Child Health Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
211
Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
212
Biostatistics, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
213
Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. rotimic@mail.nih.gov.
214
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. adrienne@bu.edu.
215
Framingham Heart Study, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. adrienne@bu.edu.

Abstract

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.

PMID:
30926973
PMCID:
PMC6467258
[Available on 2019-09-29]
DOI:
10.1038/s41588-019-0378-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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