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BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Mar 29;19(1):293. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3829-2.

The 2018 Lebanese Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial therapy in complicated intra-abdominal infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance.

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Internal Medicine-Infectious Disease, Central Michigan University, Saginaw, MI, 48602, USA.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
Pharmacy Department, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.



The Lebanese Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (LSIDCM) is involved in antimicrobial stewardship. In an attempt at guiding clinicians across Lebanon in regards to the proper use of antimicrobial agents, members of this society are in the process of preparing national guidelines for common infectious diseases, among which are the guidelines for empiric and targeted antimicrobial therapy of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI). The aims of these guidelines are optimizing patient care based on evidence-based literature and local antimicrobial susceptibility data, together with limiting the inappropriate use of antimicrobials thus decreasing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and curtailing on other adverse outcomes.


Recommendations in these guidelines are adapted from other international guidelines but modeled based on locally derived susceptibility data and on the availability of pharmaceutical and other resources.


These guidelines propose antimicrobial therapy of cIAI in adults based on risk factors, site of acquisition of infection, and clinical severity of illness. We recommend using antibiotic therapy targeting third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant gram negative organisms, with carbapenem sparing as much as possible, for community-acquired infections when the following risk factors exist: prior (within 90 days) exposure to antibiotics, immunocompromised state, recent history of hospitalization or of surgery and invasive procedure all within the preceding 90 days. We also recommend antimicrobial de-escalation strategy after culture results. Prompt and adequate antimicrobial therapy for cIAI reduces morbidity and mortality; however, the duration of therapy should be limited to no more than 4 days when adequate source control is achieved and the patient is clinically stable. The management of acute pancreatitis is conservative, with a role for antibiotic therapy only in specific situations and after microbiological diagnosis. The use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents including systemic antifungals and newly approved antibiotics is preferably restricted to infectious diseases specialists.


These guidelines represent a major step towards initiating a Lebanese national antimicrobial stewardship program. The LSIDCM emphasizes on development of a national AMR surveillance network, in addition to a national antibiogram for cIAI stratified based on the setting (community, hospital, unit-based) that should be frequently updated.


Antimicrobial resistance; Antimicrobial stewardship; Antimicrobial therapy; Complicated intra-abdominal infections; Guidelines; Lebanon

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