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Pediatr Emerg Care. 2019 Mar 28. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001788. [Epub ahead of print]

Retrospective Comparison of Intranasal Fentanyl and Inhaled Nitrous Oxide to Intravenous Ketamine and Midazolam for Painful Orthopedic Procedures in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

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1
From the Emergency Pediatrician, Sección de Urgencias de Pediatría, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To compare the efficacy and adverse events of 2 pharmacological strategies: intranasal fentanyl and nitrous oxide (FN) inhaled against intravenous ketamine and midazolam (KM) as procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in painful orthopedic procedures in the pediatric emergency department (ED).

METHODS:

This is an observational retrospective cohort study. Patients were included that submitted to PSA for carrying out a painful orthopedic procedure in the ED of a tertiary hospital over a period of 2 years. The main outcome variable was efficacy and adverse events of the PSA procedure.

RESULTS:

Eighty-three patients were included. Fifty-two patients received FN and 31 KM. The PSA strategy was considered efficacious in 82.7% of the patients in the KM group and 80.6% in the FN cohort. No differences between both strategies were found (P = 0.815). Seventeen children showed early adverse events, 2 in the FN cohort and 15 in the KM group (relative risk of the KM strategy, 23.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.24-169.99). The average of satisfaction obtained by the families was of 10 (CI, 10-10) in the KM cohort and of 9 (CI, 8-9.5) in the FN group (P = 0.152). The length of stay in the ED was longer in the KM cohort (P < 0.001). Hospital admission rate differences were not statistically different (9.6% vs 22.6%, P = 0.144) in the KM versus FN cohort.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both PSA strategies presented similar efficacy. The FN strategy was associated with a lower risk of adverse events and shorter ED length of stay than KM in this ED setting.

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