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J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2019 Feb;11(Suppl 1):S30-S35. doi: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_218_18.

Comparison of the Perception of Pain during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Metal and Ceramic Brackets.

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Department of Orthodontics, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.



Pain is experienced by patients during various fixed orthodontic procedures such as placement of separators, insertion of arch wire and its activations, orthopedic appliances such as headgear, and debonding of the appliance. This study was formulated with the background that the level of pain sensation differs between conventional metal and ceramic brackets, arch wire being the same.

Materials and Methods:

The sample comprised 40 patients. The patients were separated into two groups: Group A (metal brackets) and Group B (ceramic brackets). In Group A, the brackets were bonded with 0.022" conventional stainless steel brackets (Unitek Gemini, 3M, Monrovia, California). In Group B, the brackets were bonded with ceramic brackets (Unitek Gemini Clear Brackets, 3M, Monrovia, California). The bonding of the brackets was carried out according to the conventional etching, priming, and curing technique. A 0.016" NiTi (nickel titanium) arch wire was used as the first arch wire. The intensity of pain was documented in a figure containing two 100-mm visual analog scales (VASs).


The level of pain reduced in intensity in due course. During 1 month, VAS scores increased at the end of day 1 (24 h) for the metal and ceramic group. The pain then decreased for up to 5 days. The average pain intensity reached 4.44 in the ceramic group, whereas it was 2.7 in the metal group for the upper anterior region. It decreased up to 1 in the ceramic and 0.22 in the metal group.


Patients bonded with ceramic brackets experienced a higher and more severe pain of longer duration than individuals treated with conventional brackets.


Ceramic brackets; metal brackets; pain; visual analog scale

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