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Science. 2019 Mar 29;363(6434):1459-1463. doi: 10.1126/science.aav0379.

Amphibian fungal panzootic causes catastrophic and ongoing loss of biodiversity.

Author information

1
Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. ben.scheele@anu.edu.au.
2
National Environmental Science Programme, Threatened Species Recovery Hub, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
3
One Health Research Group, Melbourne Veterinary School, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia.
4
Wildlife Health Ghent, Department of Pathology, Bacteriology, and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.
5
Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Biología Evolutiva, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 340, Santiago, Chile.
6
Grupo de Investigación en Ecología y Biogeografía, Universidad de Pamplona, Barrio El Buque, Km 1, Vía a Bucaramanga, Pamplona, Colombia.
7
Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23360, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
8
Laboratório de História Natural de Anfíbios Brasileiros (LaHNAB), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.
9
Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.
10
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006, Spain.
11
MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.
12
Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
13
Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Sede Venado de Oro, Paseo Bolívar 16-20, Bogotá, Colombia.
14
Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
15
Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society London, Regents Park, London NW1 4RY, UK.
16
Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
17
Smithsonian National Zoological Park and Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC 20008, USA.
18
Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Ambientales BIOSFERA, Laboratorio de Biología Evolutiva, Campus Cumbayá, Quito, Ecuador.
19
Centro de Investigación de la Biodiversidad y Cambio Climático (BioCamb), Ingeniería en Biodiversidad y Cambio Climático, Facultad de Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Calle Machala y Sabanilla, Quito, Ecuador.
20
Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
21
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstr. 43, Berlin 10115, Germany.
22
Honduras Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Center, Lancetilla Botanical Garden and Research Center, Tela, Honduras.
23
The Conservation Agency, Jamestown, RI 02835, USA.
24
AL Rae Centre for Genetics and Breeding, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.
25
School of Geography, Faculty of Forestry Engineering and Environmental Sciences, University of Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela.
26
Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
27
Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
28
Laboratorio de Sistemática e Historia Natural de Vertebrados. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República. Igua 4225, CP 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.
29
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
30
Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30315, USA.
31
School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.
32
Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, México.
33
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
34
Unidad de Genómica Avanzada (Langebio), Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, km 9.6 Libramiento Norte Carretera Irapuato-León, Irapuato, Guanajuato CP36824, México.
35
Centro de Investigación para la Sustentabilidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8370251, Chile.
36
Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
37
Zoo Miami, Conservation and Research Department, Miami, FL 33177, USA.
38
Florida International University School of Earth, Environment, and Society, 11200 SW 8th St., Miami, FL 33199, USA.
39
Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK.

Abstract

Anthropogenic trade and development have broken down dispersal barriers, facilitating the spread of diseases that threaten Earth's biodiversity. We present a global, quantitative assessment of the amphibian chytridiomycosis panzootic, one of the most impactful examples of disease spread, and demonstrate its role in the decline of at least 501 amphibian species over the past half-century, including 90 presumed extinctions. The effects of chytridiomycosis have been greatest in large-bodied, range-restricted anurans in wet climates in the Americas and Australia. Declines peaked in the 1980s, and only 12% of declined species show signs of recovery, whereas 39% are experiencing ongoing decline. There is risk of further chytridiomycosis outbreaks in new areas. The chytridiomycosis panzootic represents the greatest recorded loss of biodiversity attributable to a disease.

Comment in

PMID:
30923224
DOI:
10.1126/science.aav0379

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