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Drug Metab Dispos. 2019 Jun;47(6):556-566. doi: 10.1124/dmd.118.085803. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Impairment of Intestinal Monocarboxylate Transporter 6 Function and Expression in Diabetic Rats Induced by Combination of High-Fat Diet and Low Dose of Streptozocin: Involvement of Butyrate-Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Activation.

Author information

1
Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.
2
Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China liulee@yeah.net.
3
Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China xdliu@cpu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Generally, diabetes remarkably alters the expression and function of intestinal drug transporters. Nateglinide and bumetanide are substrates of monocarboxylate transporter 6 (MCT6). We investigated whether diabetes down-regulated the function and expression of intestinal MCT6 and the possible mechanism in diabetic rats induced by a combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozocin. Our results indicated that diabetes significantly decreased the oral plasma exposure of nateglinide. The plasma peak concentration and area under curve in diabetic rats were 16.9% and 28.2% of control rats, respectively. Diabetes significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of intestinal MCT6 and oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) but up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein level. Single-pass intestinal perfusion demonstrated that diabetes prominently decreased the absorption of nateglinide and bumetanide. The MCT6 inhibitor bumetanide, but not PEPT1 inhibitor glycylsarcosine, significantly inhibited intestinal absorption of nateglinide in rats. Coadministration with bumetanide remarkably decreased the oral plasma exposure of nateglinide in rats. High concentrations of butyrate were detected in the intestine of diabetic rats. In Caco-2 cells (a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line), bumetanide and MCT6 knockdown remarkably inhibited the uptake of nateglinide. Butyrate down-regulated the function and expression of MCT6 in a concentration-dependent manner but increased PPARγ expression. The decreased expressions of MCT6 by PPARγ agonist troglitazone or butyrate were reversed by both PPARγ knockdown and PPARγ antagonist 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (GW9662). Four weeks of butyrate treatment significantly decreased the oral plasma concentrations of nateglinide in rats, accompanied by significantly higher intestinal PPARγ and lower MCT6 protein levels. In conclusion, diabetes impaired the expression and function of intestinal MCT6 partly via butyrate-mediated PPARγ activation, decreasing the oral plasma exposure of nateglinide.

PMID:
30923035
DOI:
10.1124/dmd.118.085803

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