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Patient Educ Couns. 2019 Jul;102(7):1380-1388. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2019.02.027. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Assessing helpful and harmful family and friend involvement in adults' type 2 diabetes self-management.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Center for Health Behavior and Health Education, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Center for Diabetes Translation Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address: lindsay.mayberry@vumc.org.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
3
Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
4
Center for Health Services Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Develop and evaluate a measure assessing helpful and harmful family/friends' involvement in adults' type 2 diabetes (T2D) self-management.

METHODS:

Prior mixed-methods research, cognitive interviews, and expert input informed measure development. We administered the measure in two studies (N = 392 and N = 512) to evaluate its factor structure, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct, criterion and predictive validity.

RESULTS:

Analyses supported a two-factor solution: helpful and harmful involvement with internal consistency reliability α = .86 and .72, respectively. Three-month test-retest reliability was rho = 0.64 for helpful and rho = 0.61 for harmful (both p < 0.001). Over 90% reported at least one instance of family/friend involvement in the past month. Associations with other measures of diabetes involvement were as anticipated (all p < .01). Helpful and harmful involvement were independently associated with diabetes self-efficacy, diet, blood glucose testing and medication adherence cross-sectionally [βs 0.13-0.39 helpful, -0.12--0.33 harmful; all p < .05]. Harmful involvement independently predicted worse HbA1c (β = 0.08), and worsening HbA1c over three months (β = 0.12, both p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

The Family and Friend Involvement in Adults' Diabetes (FIAD) is a reliable and valid measure assessing family/friend involvement in adults' T2D.

PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:

FIAD use can inform interventions to improve social contexts in which adults manage diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Family; Glycemic control; Health behavior; Social support; Type 2 diabetes

PMID:
30922622
PMCID:
PMC6546510
[Available on 2020-07-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.pec.2019.02.027

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