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J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019 Jun 5;170:132-138. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2019.03.027. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Multidirectional insights into the biochemical and toxicological properties of Bougainvillea glabra (Choisy.) aerial parts: A functional approach for bioactive compounds.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IPS), University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus/Konya, Turkey.
3
Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
4
School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
5
School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
6
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
7
Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
8
School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Tropical Medicine and Biology Multidisciplinary Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Global Asia in The 21st Century (GA21) Multidisciplinary Research Platform, Monash University, Malaysia. Electronic address: nafees.ahemad@monash.edu.

Abstract

The current research work was conducted in order to probe into the biochemical and toxicological characterisation of methanol and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Choisy.) aerial parts. Biological fingerprints were assessed for in vitro antioxidant, key enzyme inhibitory and cytotoxicity potential. Total bioactive contents were determined spectrophotometrically and the secondary metabolite components of methanol extract was assessed by UHPLC mass spectrometric analysis. The antioxidant capabilities were evaluated via six different in vitro antioxidant assays namely DPPH, ABTS (free radical scavenging), FRAP, CUPRAC (reducing antioxidant power), phosphomolybdenum (total antioxidant capacity) and ferrous chelating activity. Inhibition potential against key enzymes urease, α-glucosidase and cholinesterases were also determined. Methanol extract exhibited higher phenolic (24.01 mg GAE/g extract) as well as flavonoid (41.51 mg QE/g extract) contents. Phytochemical profiling of methanol extract identified a total of twenty secondary metabolites and the major compounds belonged to flavonoids, phenolics and alkaloid derivatives. The findings of antioxidant assays revealed the methanol extract to exhibit stronger antioxidant (except phosphomolybdenum) activities. Similarly, the methanol extract showed highest butyrylcholinesterase and urease inhibition. The DCM extract was most active for phosphomolybdenum and α-glucosidase inhibition assays. Moreover, both extracts exhibited significant cytotoxic potential against five (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, CaSki, DU-145, and SW-480) human carcinoma cell lines with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 22.09 to 257.2 μg/mL. Results from the present study highlighted the potential of B. glabra aerial extracts to be further explored in an endeavour to discover novel phytotherapeutics as well as functional ingredients.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant; Bioactive compounds; Carcinoma cell lines; Cytotoxicity; Enzyme inhibitor

PMID:
30921647
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpba.2019.03.027

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