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J Forensic Leg Med. 2019 May;64:28-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2019.03.009. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Superheroes - Image and performance enhancing drug (IPED) use within the UK, social media and gym culture.

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Teesside University, UK. Electronic address:
Senior Lecturer in Sport & Exercise (Sport Studies), UK.
Visiting Research Fellow at Liverpool John Moores University, UK.


Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are the drug of choice in many cultures of the UK. Whilst there is an abundance of evidence relating to the physiological and psychological effects of steroid abuse on the individual, surprisingly there is a paucity of information relating to the perspectives of steroid users regarding the social impact of steroid use on self and society. The lack of data from steroid users has implications for forensic and legal medicine. Specifically, evidence is limited in terms of the user's voice. This is a crucial omission; the unheard voices of steroid users have much to offer into future research. 24 IPED using participants (using substituted names to protect anonymity), engaged in semi structured interviews to discuss their own personal usage, culture issues, social media and more.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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