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DNA Res. 2019 Mar 28. pii: dsz002. doi: 10.1093/dnares/dsz002. [Epub ahead of print]

A siphonous macroalgal genome suggests convergent functions of homeobox genes in algae and land plants.

Author information

1
Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa, Japan.
2
Onna Village Fisheries Cooperative, Onna, Okinawa, Japan.
3
DNA Sequencing Section, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa, Japan.

Abstract

Genome evolution and development of unicellular, multinucleate macroalgae (siphonous algae) are poorly known, although various multicellular organisms have been studied extensively. To understand macroalgal developmental evolution, we assembled the ∼26 Mb genome of a siphonous green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera, with high contiguity, containing 9,311 protein-coding genes. Molecular phylogeny using 107 nuclear genes indicates that the diversification of the class Ulvophyceae, including C. lentillifera, occurred before the split of the Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae. Compared with other green algae, the TALE superclass of homeobox genes, which expanded in land plants, shows a series of lineage-specific duplications in this siphonous macroalga. Plant hormone signalling components were also expanded in a lineage-specific manner. Expanded transport regulators, which show spatially different expression, suggest that the structural patterning strategy of a multinucleate cell depends on diversification of nuclear pore proteins. These results not only imply functional convergence of duplicated genes among green plants, but also provide insight into evolutionary roots of green plants. Based on the present results, we propose cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the structural differentiation in the siphonous alga.

KEYWORDS:

TALE homeobox genes; UTC clade; green seaweed genome; nuclear pore protein; segmental duplication

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