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Environ Sci Technol. 2019 Apr 16;53(8):4355-4363. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.8b07173. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Factors Associated with Water Service Continuity for the Rural Populations of Bangladesh, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Mozambique.

Author information

1
Department of Engineering , University of Cambridge , Cambridge CB2 1PZ , U.K.
2
Sanford School of Public Policy , Duke University , Durham , North Carolina 27708 , United States.
3
Duke Global Health Institute , Duke University , Durham , North Carolina 27710 , United States.
4
School of Civil Engineering , The University of Leeds , Leeds LS2 9JT , U.K.
5
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London WC1E 7HT , U.K.
6
Department of Disease Control , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London WC1E 7HT , U.K.
7
Health Portfolio , Oxford Policy Management , Oxford OX1 3HJ , U.K.
8
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development , Bogotá 111711 , Colombia.
9
Faculty of Public Health and Policy , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London WC1H 9SH , U.K.
10
Department of Global Health and Development , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London WC1E 7HT , U.K.
11
Department of Environmental Health , Emory University Rollins School of Public Health , Atlanta , Georgia 30322 , United States.
12
Department of Epidemiology , Emory University Rollins School of Public Health , Atlanta , Georgia 30322 , United States.
13
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Georgia Institute of Technology , Atlanta , Georgia 30308 , United States.

Abstract

Access to continuous water supply is key for improving health and economic outcomes in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries, but the factors associated with continuous water access in these areas have not been well-characterized. We surveyed 4786 households for evidence of technical, financial, institutional, social, and environmental predictors of rural water service continuity (WSC), defined as the percentage of the year that water is available from a source. Multiple imputed fractional logistic regression models that account for the survey design were used to assess operational risks to WSC for piped supply, tube wells, boreholes, springs, dug wells, and surface water for the rural populations of Bangladesh, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. Multivariable regressions indicate that households using multiple water sources were associated with lower WSC in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Mozambique. However, the possibility must be considered that households may use more than one water source because services are intermittent. Water scarcity and drought were largely unassociated with WSC, suggesting that service interruptions may not be primarily due to physical water resource constraints. Consistent findings across countries may have broader relevance for meeting established targets for service availability as well as human health.

PMID:
30917279
PMCID:
PMC6724210
[Available on 2020-04-16]
DOI:
10.1021/acs.est.8b07173
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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