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Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 May;127:206-217. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.03.044. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative brain injury: Therapeutic effects of Cola nitida infusion against redox imbalance, cerebellar neuronal insults, and upregulated Nrf2 expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa; Nutrition and Toxicology Division, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Lagos, Nigeria.
2
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA; Department of Human Anatomy, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
3
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa.
4
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa; Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
5
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA.
6
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, (Westville Campus), Durban, 4000, South Africa. Electronic address: islamd@ukzn.ac.za.

Abstract

The therapeutic effect of the hot water infusion of Cola nitida against hyperglycemia-induced neurotoxicity, cerebellar neurodegeneration and elemental deregulations was investigated in fructose-streptozotocin induced rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A diabetic group was administered drinking water, two other diabetic groups were treated with C. nitida at 150 and 300 mg/kg bodyweight respectively, while another group was administered metformin (200 mg/kg bodyweight). Two other groups consisting of normal rats, were administered drinking water and C. nitida (300 mg/kg bodyweight). After 6 weeks of treatment, their brains were collected. Treatment with C. nitida led to suppression of oxidative stress, significantly elevating reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, concomitant with depletion of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Acetylcholinesterase and ATPase activities were significantly inhibited in C. nitida-treated diabetic rats. Histological and microscopic analysis also revealed a restorative effect of C. nitida on T2D-altered distribution of elements, neurons and axonal nodes. Treatment with C. nitida also led to significant inhibition of Nrf2 expression in the cerebellar cortex. These results suggest the therapeutic effects of C. nitida in maintenance of the neuronal integrity and antioxidant status of the brain in T2D. These neuroprotective activities can be attributed to the identified alkaloid, caffeine in the infusion.

KEYWORDS:

Cola nitida; Neurodegeneration; Nrf2; SEM-EDX; Type 2 diabetes

PMID:
30914353
DOI:
10.1016/j.fct.2019.03.044

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