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Pleura Peritoneum. 2018 Mar 21;3(1):20180103. doi: 10.1515/pp-2018-0103. eCollection 2018 Mar 1.

Hypoxia, cytokines and stromal recruitment: parallels between pathophysiology of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis, endometriosis and peritoneal metastasis.

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Upper GI Surgery Department, Liverpool Hospital, Elizabeth St, Liverpool, 2170, NSW, Australia.


Peritoneal response to various kinds of injury involves loss of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC), danger signalling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and mesothelial-mesenchymal transition (MMT). Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), endometriosis (EM) and peritoneal metastasis (PM) are all characterized by hypoxia and formation of a vascularized connective tissue stroma mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is constitutively expressed by the PMC and plays a major role in the maintenance of a transformed, inflammatory micro-environment in PM, but also in EPS and EM. Persistently high levels of TGF-β1 or stimulation by inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6)) induce peritoneal MMT, adhesion formation and fibrosis. TGF-β1 enhances hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression, which drives cell growth, extracellular matrix production and cell migration. Disruption of the peritoneal glycocalyx and exposure of the basement membrane release low molecular weight hyaluronan, which initiates a cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators, including peritoneal cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, prostaglandins), growth factors (TGF-α, TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, VEGF, epidermal growth factor) and the fibrin/coagulation cascade (thrombin, Tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI]-1/2). Chronic inflammation and cellular transformation are mediated by damage-associated molecular patterns, pattern recognition receptors, AGE-RAGE, extracellular lactate, pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, increased glycolysis, metabolomic reprogramming and cancer-associated fibroblasts. The pathogenesis of EPS, EM and PM shows similarities to the cellular transformation and stromal recruitment of wound healing.


CAPD; DAMPs; EPS; HIF; TGF-β1; VEGF; endometriosis; hyaluronan; peritoneal metastasis

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