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AIDS Care. 2019 Mar 25:1-10. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2019.1595517. [Epub ahead of print]

Healthcare facility characteristics associated with achievement and maintenance of HIV viral suppression among persons newly diagnosed with HIV in New York City.

Author information

1
a Division of Disease Control , New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene , Long Island City , NY , USA.
2
b Epidemiology and Biostatistics , City University of New York (CUNY) Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy , New York , NY , USA.
3
c Environmental, Occupational, and Geospatial Health Sciences , City University of New York (CUNY) Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy , New York , NY , USA.

Abstract

Health care facility characteristics have been shown to influence intermediary health outcomes among persons with HIV, but few longitudinal studies of suppression have included these characteristics. We studied the association of these characteristics with the achievement and maintenance of HIV viral suppression among New York City (NYC) residents aged 13 years and older newly diagnosed with HIV between 2006 and 2012. The NYC HIV surveillance registry provided individual and facility data (N = 12,547 persons). Multivariable proportional hazards models estimated the likelihood of individual achievement and maintenance of suppression by type of facility, patient volume, and distance from residence, accounting for facility clustering and for individual-level confounders. Viral suppression was achieved within 12 months by 44% and at a later point by another 29%. Viral suppression occurred at a lower rate in facilities with low HIV patient volume (e.g., 10-24 diagnoses per year vs. ≥75, adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.95) and in screening/diagnosis sites (vs. hospitals, AHR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.92). Among persons achieving viral suppression, 18% experienced virologic failure within 12 months and 24% later. Those receiving care at large outpatient facilities or large private practices had a lower rate of virologic failure (e.g., large outpatient facilities vs. large hospitals, AHR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.53-0.75). Achievement and maintenance of viral suppression were associated with facilities with higher HIV-positive caseloads. Some facilities with small caseloads and screening/diagnosis sites may need stronger care or referral systems to help persons with HIV achieve and maintain viral suppression.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; HIV viral suppression; HIV virologic failure; access; and evaluation; epidemiology; health care quality; health facilities

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