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Viruses. 2019 Mar 22;11(3). pii: E290. doi: 10.3390/v11030290.

Arthritogenic Alphavirus-Induced Immunopathology and Targeting Host Inflammation as A Therapeutic Strategy for Alphaviral Disease.

Author information

1
Emerging Viruses and Inflammation Research Group, Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia. helen.mostafavi@griffithuni.edu.au.
2
Emerging Viruses and Inflammation Research Group, Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia. e.abeyratne@griffith.edu.au.
3
Emerging Viruses and Inflammation Research Group, Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia. a.zaid@griffith.edu.au.
4
Emerging Viruses and Inflammation Research Group, Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia. a.taylor1@griffith.edu.au.

Abstract

Arthritogenic alphaviruses are a group of medically important arboviruses that cause inflammatory musculoskeletal disease in humans with debilitating symptoms, such as arthralgia, arthritis, and myalgia. The arthritogenic, or Old World, alphaviruses are capable of causing explosive outbreaks, with some viruses of major global concern. At present, there are no specific therapeutics or commercially available vaccines available to prevent alphaviral disease. Infected patients are typically treated with analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to provide often inadequate symptomatic relief. Studies to determine the mechanisms of arthritogenic alphaviral disease have highlighted the role of the host immune system in disease pathogenesis. This review discusses the current knowledge of the innate immune response to acute alphavirus infection and alphavirus-induced immunopathology. Therapeutic strategies to treat arthritogenic alphavirus disease by targeting the host immune response are also examined.

KEYWORDS:

Ross River virus; alphavirus; arthralgia; chikungunya; emerging virus; mosquito-borne

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