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Pediatr Emerg Med Pract. 2019 Apr;16(4):1-28. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis and management in the emergency department.

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Attending Physician, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Valley Children's Hospital, Madera, CA.
Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Nationwide Children's Hospital & The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH.
Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA.


Worldwide, pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children aged < 5 years. Distinguishing viral from bacterial causes of pneumonia is paramount to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. For patients who can be managed with outpatient treatment, the utility of laboratory tests and radiographic studies, as well as the need for empiric antibiotics, remains questionable. This issue reviews viral and bacterial etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia in pediatric patients, offers guidance for obtaining historical information and interpreting physical examination findings, discusses the utility of various diagnostic techniques, and provides recommendations for the treatment of previously healthy and medically fragile children.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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