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Curr Med Chem. 2019 Mar 24. doi: 10.2174/0929867326666190325095223. [Epub ahead of print]

Metabolism of Oxalate in Humans: A Potential Role Kynurenine Aminotransferase/Glutamine Transaminase/Cysteine Conjugate Beta-lyase Plays in Hyperoxaluria.

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Key Laboratory of Tropical Biological Resources of Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan 570228. China.
Central South University Xiangya School of Medicine Affiliated Haikou People's Hospital, Haikou, Hainan 570208. China.
Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061. United States.


Hyperoxaluria, excessive urinary oxalate excretion, is a significant health problem worldwide. Disrupted oxalate metabolism has been implicated in hyperoxaluria and accordingly, an enzymatic disturbance in oxalate biosynthesis can result in the primary hyperoxaluria. Alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase-1 and glyoxylate reductase, the enzymes involving glyoxylate (precursor for oxalate) metabolism, have been related to primary hyperoxalurias. Some studies suggest that other enzymes such as glycolate oxidase and alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase-2 might be associated with primary hyperoxaluria as well, but evidence of a definitive link is not strong between the clinical cases and gene mutations. There are still some idiopathic hyperoxalurias, which require a further study for the etiologies. Some aminotransferases, particularly kynurenine aminotransferases, can convert glyoxylate to glycine. Based on biochemical and structural characteristics, expression level, subcellular localization of some aminotransferases, a number of them appear able to catalyze the transamination of glyoxylate to glycine more efficiently than alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase-1. The aim of this minireview is to explore other undermining causes of primary hyperoxaluria and stimulate research toward achieving a comprehensive understanding of underlying mechanisms leading to the disease. Herein, we reviewed all aminotransferases in the liver for their functions in glyoxylate metabolism. Particularly, kynurenine aminotransferase-I and III were carefully discussed regarding their biochemical and structural characteristics, cellular localization, and enzyme inhibition. Kynurenine aminotransferase-III is, so far, the most efficient putative mitochondrial enzyme to transaminate glyoxylate to glycine in mammalian livers, might be an interesting enzyme to look over in hyperoxaluria etiology of primary hyperoxaluria and should be carefully investigated for its involvement in oxalate metabolism.


Hyperoxaluria; aminotransferase; glyoxylate; kidney stone ; kynurenine aminotransferase; oxalate metabolism

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