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J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):83-95. doi: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_60_18.

Optimization and Designing of Amikacin-loaded Poly D, L-Lactide-co-glycolide Nanoparticles for Effective and Sustained Drug Delivery.

Author information

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.
Product Development Cell-II, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.



Amikacin, a water-soluble aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat gram-negative bacillary infections, is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class III drug having poor permeability and short half-life. It is given parenterally, which limits its use in patients warranting "at-home care." An oral drug delivery of amikacin is, therefore, imminent.


This work focused on establishing poly d, l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)-based nanoparticles of amikacin with consolidated pharmaceutical attributes capable of circumventing gastrointestinal tract membrane barriers and promoting oral administration of the drug. The partied attributes are suggestive of enhanced uptake of the drug via Peyer's patches overlaying small intestine and support successful oral delivery.

Materials and Methods:

To have a robust delivery system, a statistical Box-Behnken experimental design was used and formulation parameters such as homogenization time, probe sonication time, and drug/polymer ratio of amikacin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (A-NPs) for obtaining monodispersed nanoparticles of adequate size and high drug loading were optimized.


The model suggested to use the optimum homogenization time, probe sonication time, and drug/polymer ratio as 30 s, 120 s, and 1:10, respectively. Under these formulation conditions, the particle size was found to be 260.3 nm and the drug loading was 3.645%.


Biodegradable PLGA nanoparticulate systems with high payload, optimum size, and low polydispersity index will ensure successful uptake and ultimately leading to better bioavailability. Hence, under the aforementioned optimized conditions, the A-NPs prepared had particle size of 260.3 nm, which is appreciable for its permeability across small intestine, and drug loading of 3.645%.


Amikacin-loaded poly d; aminoglycoside antibiotic; drug loading; l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles; preformulation studies

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