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J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):69-76. doi: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_211_18.

Impact of Pharmacist-directed Counseling and Message Reminder Services on Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Author information

1
Research Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER), Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.
3
Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Introduction:

Medication nonadherence is the most common issue observed in the management of diabetes because of complex and lifelong therapy. The study aimed to assess the effect of pharmacist-directed counseling and daily text message reminder on medication adherence and clinical profile of patients with type II diabetes.

Materials and Methods:

This prospective, open-labeled, randomized control trial was carried out in outpatient medical department of a secondary care referral hospital. A total of 330 patients who met study criteria were enrolled and randomized into an intervention group (n = 165), received counseling and daily messages about medication intake and control group (n = 165), and usual care by physician. Medication adherence and clinical outcomes such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) levels, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded at baseline and follow-up visits. Two-sample Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the mean difference of medication adherence and paired t-test was used to compare clinical outcomes.

Results and Discussion:

The mean age of intervention and control groups were 57.1 ± 8.55 and 58.5 ± 8.53 years, respectively. The mean difference of medication adherence from baseline to second follow-up visit was significantly more in intervention group (12.2 ± 7.1%) compared to that in control group (0.75 ± 10.2 %) with a P < 0.001. From baseline to second follow-up visit, HbA1C (7.79 ± 0.67 to 6.91 ± 0.83 %), SBP (136.75 ± 20.09 to 126.23 ± 18.22 mm Hg), and LDL cholesterol (104.14 ± 26.23 to 98.29 ± 20.87 mg/dL) levels were significantly reduced in intervention group compared to that in control group with a P < 0.01. No significant improvement was observed in TG (169± 33.71 to 168 65 ± 33.90 mg/dL) and BMI (27.9 ± 4.21 to 27.1 ± 3.12 Kg/m2) levels from baseline to second follow-up visit.

Conclusion:

Pharmacist-directed patient counseling combined with message reminder showed a greater effect on the improvement of medication adherence and control of glycemia, blood pressure, and lipid profile in diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; medication adherence; patient counseling; pill count; text message; visual analog scale

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