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Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2019 Jun;14(6):1009-1016. doi: 10.1007/s11548-019-01950-0. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Deep neural maps for unsupervised visualization of high-grade cancer in prostate biopsies.

Author information

1
Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Sedghi@cs.queensu.ca.
2
The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
3
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
4
Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea.
5
The National Institutes of Health Research Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.
6
Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequent noncutaneous cancer in men. Early detection of PCa is essential for clinical decision making, and reducing metastasis and mortality rates. The current approach for PCa diagnosis is histopathologic analysis of core biopsies taken under transrectal ultrasound guidance (TRUS-guided). Both TRUS-guided systematic biopsy and MR-TRUS-guided fusion biopsy have limitations in accurately identifying PCa, intraoperatively. There is a need to augment this process by visualizing highly probable areas of PCa. Temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS) has emerged as a promising modality for PCa detection. Prior work focused on supervised classification of PCa verified by gold standard pathology. Pathology labels are noisy, and data from an entire core have a single label even when significantly heterogeneous. Additionally, supervised methods are limited by data from cores with known pathology, and a significant portion of prostate data is discarded without being used. We provide an end-to-end unsupervised solution to map PCa distribution from TeUS data using an innovative representation learning method, deep neural maps. TeUS data are transformed to a topologically arranged hyper-lattice, where similar samples are closer together in the lattice. Therefore, similar regions of malignant and benign tissue in the prostate are clustered together. Our proposed method increases the number of training samples by several orders of magnitude. Data from biopsy cores with known labels are used to associate the clusters with PCa. Cancer probability maps generated using the unsupervised clustering of TeUS data help intuitively visualize the distribution of abnormal tissue for augmenting TRUS-guided biopsies.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer diagnosis; Deep learning; Deep neural maps; Prostate cancer; Self-organizing maps; Temporal enhanced ultrasound

PMID:
30905010
DOI:
10.1007/s11548-019-01950-0

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