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Sleep Med. 2019 Aug;60:132-138. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2019.01.043. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Diabetes management mediates the association between sleep duration and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Author information

1
Department of Disability and Psychoeducational Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. Electronic address: sfrye@email.arizona.edu.
2
Department of Disability and Psychoeducational Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
3
College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND:

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of diabetes management and sleep duration with glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

PATIENTS/METHODS:

111 participants (mean age = 13.59 ± 2.11 years, 52.3% male, 50.5% non-white) wore actigraphy (average duration = 5.5 nights) and completed self-reported daily sleep diaries (average duration = 5.3 nights). Parents and participants each completed the Diabetes Management Scale (DMS) as part of a neurobehavioral evaluation. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daily frequency of self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) were collected from patient medical records.

RESULTS:

Youth with T1DM slept below the recommended amount of sleep for this age group (M = 7.45, SD = 0.74), which is approximately 9 h for school aged youth. They were in poor glycemic control with an average HbA1c of 9.11% (SD = 1.95) and their SMBG frequency was 4.9 (SD = 2.71). Average sleep duration from actigraphy was significantly correlated with average SMBG frequency and inversely related to HbA1c, indicating that less sleep was associated with worse management and glycemic control. When entered into a mediation model, diabetes management (SMBG frequency) completely mediated the relationship between sleep duration and glycemic control (HbA1c). Different sleep parameters of sleep quality, time to sleep, and sleep consistency also significantly correlated with HbA1c, SMBG, and parent and child-reports of various aspects of diabetes management. In particular, later bedtimes and a greater social jetlag predicted worse glycemic control.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a sample of sleep deprived and poorly controlled youth with T1DM, diabetes management was an intermediary factor between sleep duration and glycemic control. Additional analyses of data supported circadian influences on glycemic control. These results highlight the importance of addressing sleep duration, quality, and consistency as part of routine diabetes management in this population.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes management; Glycemic control; Sleep duration; Type 1 diabetes

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