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Odontology. 2019 Oct;107(4):449-456. doi: 10.1007/s10266-019-00419-5. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Evaluation of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII and IL-1β levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in periodontal disease and health.

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Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34100, Istanbul, Turkey.
Oral dental health center, Private practice, Izmir, Turkey.
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Izmir Katip Çelebi University, Izmir, Turkey.
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Science, Istanbul, Turkey.


The aim of this study is to determine the levels of MFG-E8 and interleukin (IL)-1β in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) associated with periodontal health and disease. Whole saliva and GCF samples were obtained from systemically healthy participants who were either periodontally healthy (n = 24) or suffered from gingivitis (n = 25) or chronic periodontitis (n = 25). Full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements, including bleeding on probing, probing depth, gingival index, plaque index, and clinical attachment level were also recorded. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to estimate MFG-E8 and IL-1β levels in the samples. Analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyse the data statistically. The total level of MFG-E8 in GCF was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the other two groups (P = 0.01). Salivary MFG-E8 levels did not differ significantly among the groups. There were negative correlations between the level of MFG-E8 in GCF and probing depth (P = 0.03), bleeding on probing (P = 0.001), plaque index (P = 0.003), and gingival index (P = 0.003). The total level of IL-1β in GCF was significantly lower in the healthy group than in the groups with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis (P < 0.001). Salivary IL-1β levels showed significant differences across all three groups (P < 0.001). The level of MFG-E8 in GCF was higher in the healthy group than in the periodontal disease groups. Furthermore, there was no difference between gingivitis and periodontitis groups. The relationship between MFG-E8 and periodontal status should be further investigated.


Gingival crevicular fluid; IL-1β; MFG-E8; Periodontitis; Saliva


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