Send to

Choose Destination
Prev Med. 2019 Jun;123:138-142. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.03.028. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Tobacco smoke exposure disparities persist in U.S. children: NHANES 1999-2014.

Author information

School of Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:
College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, Bethesda, MD, USA.
College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Division of Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.


Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is a common modifiable hazard to children. The objective was to investigate how the prevalence of TSE varied from 1999 to 2014 among U.S. children and to calculate differences between sociodemographic characteristics and TSE by two-year increases. We also assessed associations between sociodemographics and TSE in 2013-2014. A secondary analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014 was performed including 14,199 children 3-11 years old from nationwide. We conducted logistic regression analyses to assess TSE trends, and associations between sociodemographics and TSE in 2013-2014. TSE prevalence declined from 64.5% to 38.1% during 1999-2014 (a relative reduction of 44.4%). TSE declined among all sociodemographics. In 2013-2014, differences in TSE were found by race/ethnicity, family monthly poverty level [FPL], and house status. Non-Hispanic black children were 1.85 times more likely (95%CI[1.39-2.47]) to be exposed to tobacco smoke than non-Hispanic white children, whereas Non-Hispanic other (OR = 0.71, 95%CI[0.52-0.96]), Hispanic other (OR = 0.42, 95%CI[0.30-0.59]), and Hispanic Mexican (OR = 0.27, 95%CI[0.21-0.35]) children were at lower risk of exposure. Compared to those in the highest FPL category (>185%), children with FPL ≤130% were 3.37 times more likely (95%CI[2.73-4.15]) and children with FPL 131-185% were 1.80 times more likely (95%CI[1.31-2.49]) to be exposed. Children who lived in rented homes were 2.23 times more likely (95%CI[1.85-2.69]) to be exposed than children who lived in owned homes. Targeted tobacco control efforts are needed to reduce existing TSE disparities among children, especially those who are non-Hispanic black, low socioeconomic status, and live in rented homes.


Child; Cotinine; Environmental tobacco smoking; Passive smoking; Secondhand tobacco smoking; Tobacco smoke exposure

[Available on 2020-06-01]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center