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Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar 20. doi: 10.4103/sjg.SJG_12_19. [Epub ahead of print]

Endoscopic robotic suturing: The way forward.

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Department of General Surgery, National University Hospital, Singapore.
Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore.


Traditionally, suturing is performed in open surgery using a needle holder and forceps. The aim is to achieve accurate approximation of both edges of the wound and to tie a secure knot. With the development of laparoscopic surgery, traditional suturing methods have been adapted to meet the constraints of rigid laparoscopic instruments with limited degrees of freedom. The subsequent introduction of three-dimensional robotic suturing has since made intracorporeal suturing easier to learn, primarily because of its intuitiveness and the additional degree of freedom of the robotic wrists. With the increasing popularity of therapeutic endoscopic procedures for early gastrointestinal cancers, devices allowing for endoscopic suturing have since been developed. Nevertheless, these devices remain challenging to use as they require double-channel endoscopes and do not have the extra degree of freedom of robotic wrists. The introduction of robotics to the field of endoscopic suturing has proven to be promising. This review describes the development and adaptation of basic suturing techniques to various platforms, such as laparoscopic, robotic and endoscopic.


Flexible endoscopy; robotics; suture techniques; therapeutic endoscopy

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