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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Apr;67(4):472-475. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1336_18.

Human amniotic membrane as a drug carrier - An in-vitro study using fortified cefazolin ophthalmic solution.

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Department of Cornea, Aravind Eye Hospital (AEH), Anna Nagar, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Ocular Pharmacology, Aravind Medical Research Foundation (AMRF), Anna Nagar, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.



Our previous study demonstrated the drug reservoir function of human amniotic membrane (HAM) using stable moxifloxacin as a model drug. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate whether HAM can be used as a drug carrier for extended release of extemporaneous preparation of cefazolin.


HAM Buttons (1 Control, 5 Test) were incubated in a freshly prepared (1 ml) sterile topical solution of cefazolin 5% (w/v) for 3 h and 24 h at two different temperatures. The groups were designated as follows: Group IA: Soaking duration 3 h at 4°C; Group IB: Soaking duration 3 h at room temperature; Group IIA: Soaking duration 24 h at 4°C; and Group IIB: Soaking duration 24 h at room temperature. The release kinetics of cefazolin from different groups of drug-laden HAM was studied for a period of 5 days. Samples were assayed for estimation of cefazolin content at different time intervals by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Photodiode array (PDA) detector.


Three-hour cefazolin treatment with HAM at 4°C caused high drug entrapment (24%) compared to room temperature (11%; P < 0.005); however, the release kinetics was not significantly different between Group IA and IB as well as Group IIA and IIB up to the study period. Increase in drug treatment duration did not show increase in entrapment, but caused two-fold (IA Vs IIA) and 1.6-fold (IB Vs IIB) less drug entrapment at 4°C and room temperature, respectively.


The results reveal that HAM may be a suitable drug carrier for extended delivery of fortified formulations without compromising stability.


Cefazolin; human amniotic membrane; release kinetics

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