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Clin Transplant. 2019 Mar 21:e13546. doi: 10.1111/ctr.13546. [Epub ahead of print]

Tissue and Blood Protozoa including Toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, Babesia, Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, & Naegleria in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients - Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation.

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Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.


These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention and management of tissue and blood protozoal infections in the pre- and post-transplant period. Significant new developments in the field have made it necessary to divide the previous single guideline published in 2013 into two sections, with the intestinal parasites separated from this guideline devoted to tissue and blood protozoa. The current update reflects the increased focus on donor screening and risk-based recipient monitoring for parasitic infections. Increased donor testing has led to new recommendations for recipient management of Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. Molecular diagnostics have impacted the field, with access to rapid diagnostic testing for malaria and PCR testing for Leishmania. Changes in Babesia treatment regimens in the immunocompromised host are outlined. The risk of donor transmission of free living amebae infection is reviewed. Changing immigration patterns and the expansion of transplant medicine in developing countries has contributed to the recognition of parasitic infections as an important threat to transplant outcomes. Medications such as benznidazole and miltefosine are now available to US prescribers as access to treatment of tissue and blood protozoa is increasingly prioritized. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Acanthamoeba; Babesia; Balamuthia; Leishmaniasis; Malaria; Naegleria; Parasites; Toxoplasma gondii; Trypanosoma cruzi; donor-derived; transplant


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