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J Med Chem. 2019 Apr 25;62(8):3873-3885. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01283. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Structure-Activity Relationships for Itraconazole-Based Triazolone Analogues as Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitors.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of Connecticut , 69 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3092 , Storrs , Connecticut 06269 , United States.
Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program, NCI-Designated Cancer Center , Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute , 10901 North Torrey Pines Road , La Jolla , California 92037 , United States.


The Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal agent, itraconazole (ITZ), has been increasingly studied for its novel biological properties. In particular, ITZ inhibits the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and has the potential to serve as an anticancer chemotherapeutic against several Hh-dependent malignancies. We have extended our studies on ITZ analogues as Hh pathway inhibitors through the design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel des-triazole ITZ analogues that incorporate modifications to the triazolone/side chain region of the scaffold. Our overall results suggest that the triazolone/side chain region can be replaced with various functionalities (hydrazine carboxamides and meta-substituted amides) resulting in improved potency when compared to ITZ. Our studies also indicate that the stereochemical orientation of the dioxolane ring is important for both potent Hh pathway inhibition and compound stability. Finally, our studies suggest that the ITZ scaffold can be successfully modified in terms of functionality and stereochemistry to further improve its anti-Hh potency and physicochemical properties.

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