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J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2019 Jun;30(8):629-645. doi: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1595892. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a functional antibiofilm wound dressing.

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a Centre for Drug Delivery Research, Fakulti Farmasi , Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia.


Biofilms comprise bacteria attached to wound surfaces and are major contributors to non-healing wounds. It was found that the increased resistance of biofilms to antibiotics allows wound infections to persist chronically in spite of antibiotic therapy. In this study, the reduced form of graphene oxide (rGO) was explored as plausible antibiofilm agents. The rGO was synthesized via reducing the functional groups of GO. Then, rGO were characterized using zetasizer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and FESEM. The rGO were then formulated into sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) hydrogels to form rGO hydrogel and tested for antibiofilm activities in vitro using XTT test, and in vivo biofilm formation assay using nematodes C. elegans. Reduced GO hydrogel was successfully formed by reducing the functional groups of GO, and a reduction of up to 95% of functional groups was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. XTT tests confirmed that rGO hydrogels reduced biofilm formation by S. aureus (81-84%) and P. aeruginosa (50-62%). Fluorescence intensity also confirmed that rGO hydrogel can inhibit biofilm bacteria in C. elegans experiments. This study implied that rGO hydrogel is an effective antibiofilm agent for infected wounds.


Reduced graphene oxide; antibiofilm; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; wound dressing

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