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Anat Histol Embryol. 2019 Mar 20. doi: 10.1111/ahe.12439. [Epub ahead of print]

Morphology and histology of the Anatolian bobcat (Lynx lynx) hard palate.

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Department of Anatomy, Veterinary Faculty, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.
Departments of Histology and Embryology, Veterinary Faculty, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.


The aim of the research was to investigate the morphological and histological structure of the Anatolian bobcat (Lynx lynx) hard palate using light and scanning electron microscopy, in addition to gross examination. The Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Work (Sivas Branch) provided three female Anatolian bobcat cadavers. The Anatolian bobcat hard palate consists of a narrow, rough part in the rostral region (including the incisive papilla, palatine ridges, and palatine raphe) and a wide, smooth part in the caudal part region. The gross examination revealed that the incisive papilla is small and shaped like a carboy icon, the primary and secondary palatine ridges have a serrated appearance, and the palatine raphe forms a single longitudinal row of conical papillae and a single transverse row of conical papillae (in the transverse groove that separates the two palatine ridges). In addition, the microscopy examination revealed microplicae in the epithelium, as well as abundant connective-tissue bundles running in various directions in the lamina propria and submucosa layer. These adaptations of the hard palate structures may increase efficiency during ingestion and help direct food backwards. This is the first study to provide detailed morphological and histological descriptions of the Anatolian bobcat hard palate.


Anatolian bobcat (Lynx lynx); anatomy; hard palate; palatine ridges


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