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J Dent Sci. 2018 Sep;13(3):207-212. doi: 10.1016/j.jds.2017.12.002. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Evaluation of dynamic and static torsional resistances of nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

Author information

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.
Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea.



This study evaluated the torsional resistances of nickel-titanium rotary instruments by two methods: i) dynamic resistance: repetitive torsional loading (RTL) and ii) static resistance: single torsional loading (STL) based on the International Organization for Standardization.

Materials and methods:

In RTL method, a pre-set rotational loading (0.5 N cm) was applied after fixing the 3-mm tip of the file, and this clockwise loading to the pre-set torque and counter-clockwise unloading to original position was repeated at 50 rpm until the file fractured. The number of repetition cycles until fracture was counted. In STL method, the torsional strength was determined by continuous clockwise rotation (2 rpm) until fracture. Results from both methods were compared after testing the torsional resistances of four instrument systems (n = 15): Hyflex CM, HyFlex EDM, V-Taper2, and V-Taper2H. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the topographic features of the fractured surfaces and longitudinal aspects (n = 5) from both methods.


The RTL and STL methods had similar results: V-Taper2 had the highest resistance and the Hyflex CM had the lowest (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed the results from two methods were strongly correlated (coefficient = 1). Under the SEM, specimens from the RTL showed ruptured aspects on cross-sections with multiple areas of crack propagation, while the STL showed the typical features of torsional failure such as circular abrasion marks and fatigue dimples.


This study suggests the clinically relevant torsional test (RTL) method yield similar results with the STL method, but they have different topographic findings.


Dynamic repetitive load; Fracture; Nickel-titanium rotary instrument; Static rotation; Torsional resistance

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