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Antibiotics (Basel). 2019 Mar 19;8(1). pii: E29. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics8010029.

Antibiotic Resistance in Pacific Island Countries and Territories: A Systematic Scoping Review.

Author information

1
Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2600, Australia. nicola.foxlee@anu.edu.au.
2
Diagnostic Microbiology Development Program, Phnom Penh 12000, Cambodia. nikkitownell@hotmail.com.
3
Médecins Sans Frontières, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. lachlan.mciver@geneva.msf.org.
4
Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2600, Australia. colleen.lau@anu.edu.au.

Abstract

Several studies have investigated antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries, but to date little attention has been paid to the Pacific Islands Countries and Territories (PICTs). This study aims to review the literature on antibiotic resistance (ABR) in healthcare settings in PICTs to inform further research and future policy development for the region. Following the PRISMA-ScR checklist health databases and grey literature sources were searched. Three reviewers independently screened the literature for inclusion, data was extracted using a charting tool and the results were described and synthesised. Sixty-five studies about ABR in PICTs were identified and these are primarily about New Caledonia, Fiji and Papua New Guinea. Ten PICTs contributed the remaining 21 studies and nine PICTs were not represented. The predominant gram-positive pathogen reported was community-acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus and the rates of resistance ranged widely (>50% to <20%). Resistance reported in gram-negative pathogens was mainly associated with healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing K. pneumoniae isolates were reported in New Caledonia (3.4%) and Fiji (22%) and carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (CR-ab) isolates in the French Territories (24.8%). ABR is a problem in the PICTs, but the epidemiology requires further characterisation. Action on strengthening surveillance in PICTs needs to be prioritised so strategies to contain ABR can be fully realised.

KEYWORDS:

antimicrobial resistance; gram-negative organisms; gram-positive organisms; healthcare associated infections; surveillance

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