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Nutrients. 2019 Mar 19;11(3). pii: E664. doi: 10.3390/nu11030664.

Procyanidin-Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro.

Author information

1
UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, F-84000 Avignon, France. carine.le-bourvellec@inra.fr.
2
Micalis, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, F-7800 Jouy-en-Josas, France. bagano.vilasboas@gmail.com.
3
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 0454 MEDIS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. lepercq@insa-toulouse.fr.
4
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 0454 MEDIS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. sophie.marre@uca.fr.
5
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 0454 MEDIS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. paulineauffret88@gmail.com.
6
Ifremer, UMR 241 EIO, F-98702 Tahiti, French Polynesia. paulineauffret88@gmail.com.
7
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 0454 MEDIS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. philippe.ruiz@inra.fr.
8
UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, F-84000 Avignon, France. romain.bott@inra.fr.
9
UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, F-84000 Avignon, France. catherine.renard@inra.fr.
10
UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, F-84000 Avignon, France. claire.dufour@inra.fr.
11
Micalis, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, F-7800 Jouy-en-Josas, France. jean-marc.chatel@inra.fr.
12
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 0454 MEDIS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. pascale.mosoni@inra.fr.

Abstract

B-type oligomeric procyanidins in apples constitute an important source of polyphenols in the human diet. Their role in health is not known, although it is suggested that they generate beneficial bioactive compounds upon metabolization by the gut microbiota. During apple processing, procyanidins interact with cell-wall polysaccharides and form stable complexes. These interactions need to be taken into consideration in order to better assess the biological effects of fruit constituents. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of these interactions on the microbial metabolization of cell walls and procyanidins, and to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the resulting metabolome, in addition to analyzing the taxonomical changes which the microbiota undergo. In vitro fermentation of three model apple matrices with microbiota from 4 healthy donors showed that the binding of procyanidins to cell-wall polysaccharides, whether covalently or non-covalently, substantially reduced procyanidin degradation. Although cell wall-unbound procyanidins negatively affected carbohydrate fermentation, they generated more hydroxyphenylvaleric acid than bound procyanidins, and increased the abundance of Adlercreutzia and Gordonibacter genera. The best results in terms of production of anti-inflammatory bioactive metabolites were observed from the apple matrix with no bonds between procyanidins and cell wall polysaccharides, although the matrix with non-covalent bonds was not far behind.

KEYWORDS:

16S metabarcoding; dietary fiber; in vitro batch fermentation; metabotype; polyphenols

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