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PLoS One. 2019 Mar 20;14(3):e0213665. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213665. eCollection 2019.

Optimal regulation of blood glucose level in Type I diabetes using insulin and glucagon.

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Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States of America.


The Glucose-Insulin-Glucagon nonlinear model accurately describes how the body responds to exogenously supplied insulin and glucagon in patients affected by Type I diabetes. Based on this model, we design infusion rates of either insulin (monotherapy) or insulin and glucagon (dual therapy) that can optimally maintain the blood glucose level within desired limits after consumption of a meal and prevent the onset of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. This problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem, which we solve using the numerical optimal control package [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, in the case of monotherapy, we find the optimal solution is close to the standard method of insulin based glucose regulation, which is to assume a variable amount of insulin half an hour before each meal. We also find that the optimal dual therapy (that uses both insulin and glucagon) is better able to regulate glucose as compared to using insulin alone. We also propose an ad-hoc rule for both the dosage and the time of delivery of insulin and glucagon.

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