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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Jun 1;81(2):193-201. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002010.

Associations Between Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and HIV-Risk Behaviors Among Young Men Living in Informal Settlements in South Africa: A Cross-Sectional Analysis and Structural Equation Model.

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Gender and Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa.
Centre for Rural Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Division of HIV/AIDS, University of California, San Francisco, CA.
Project Empower, Durban, South Africa.
Sonke Gender Justice, Cape Town, South Africa.



Qualitative research emphasizes men's experiences of trauma increase HIV risk. We seek to understand associations between experience of traumatic events and HIV-risk behaviors among heterosexual men in 2 trials in urban informal settlements in South Africa.


Cross-sectional surveys among men in Johannesburg and Durban, South Africa, enrolled in intervention trials. Adjusted logistic regression and structural equation modeling assessed associations between men's experiences of poverty and traumatic events, and HIV-risk behaviors (inconsistent condom use, transactional sex, and number of sex partners). We explored mediated pathways from trauma to HIV risk through mental health and alcohol, and gender attitudes.


Among 2394 men, in adjusted logistic regression, transactional sex and 4 or more sex partners were associated with witnessing the murder of a family member, witnessing a murder of a stranger, experiencing excessive pain, been kidnapped, and witnessing a rape. More consistent condom use was associated with witnessing the murder of a family member, being kidnapped, and witnessing a rape. In 3 separate structural equation modeling pathways were consistent, trauma directly increased transactional sex, and past year sexual partners, and increased consistent condom use. Risk was increased through mental health pathways, and gender inequitable attitudes and practices.


Men's HIV-risk behaviors in this population emerge at the confluence of poverty, traumatic experiences, and gender inequalities. Effective HIV-prevention interventions needs to reduce men's experiences of poverty and trauma, transform gender norms, and reduce the mental health impact of trauma.

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