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Arch Emerg Med. 1986 Jun;3(2):101-6.

Sprain or fracture? An analysis of 2000 ankle injuries.


A retrospective survey of over 2000 patients with inversion injuries of the ankle joint was undertaken to examine the validity of criteria commonly used in an accident and emergency department to assess severity. Swelling alone is an unreliable indicator of the severity of the injury. Patients with severe pain and inability to weight bear show a high incidence of fractures and must be X-rayed. Conversely, a combination of minimal pain and swelling, and ability to bear weight are indicative of a soft-tissue injury. Young people sustain most inversion injuries and have a lower incidence of significant fractures of the lateral malleolus. Analysis of presenting features did not reveal any reliable indicants which could be used to reduce the number of radiographs requested, without substantially increasing the risk of missing patients with significant fractures. However, it has been possible to formulate guidelines for the more rational and consistent use of X-rays in the initial assessment of patients with ankle sprains.

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