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Res Sports Med. 2019 Mar 20:1-13. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2019.1590834. [Epub ahead of print]

Determinants of concussion diagnosis, symptomology, and resolution time in U.S. high school soccer players.

Author information

1
a Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Milken Institute School of Public Health , The George Washington University , Washington , DC , USA.
2
b Matthew Gfeller Sport-Related TBI Research Center, Department of Exercise and Sport Science , The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , NC , USA.
3
c Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milken Institute School of Public Health , The George Washington University , Washington , DC , USA.

Abstract

Determinants of concussion diagnosis, symptomology, and other sequelae have not been examined in high school soccer players. Using a sample of soccer-related head/neck injuries from the NATION Surveillance Program, we evaluated potential determinants (sex, injury history, injury mechanism, setting) of concussion characteristics. A total of 378 head/neck injuries were recorded, and 189 (50.0%) injuries from this sample, resulted in a concussion diagnosis. Odds of concussion diagnosis were 84% higher among female players compared with their male counterparts, and over two-fold higher in game settings compared with practice settings. We also observed several significant symptom dependencies, such as higher odds of difficulty concentrating (OR = 5.84, 95% CI = [2.99, 11.42]) given concurrent light sensitivity. Furthermore, we identified injury mechanism as a determinant of concussion symptom resolution time. Our results suggest that determinants of soccer-related concussions and their sequelae are multifactorial, and extend the existing literature with the potential to inform clinical practice.

KEYWORDS:

Concussion; Soccer; Surveillance

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