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Biomed Opt Express. 2019 Feb 11;10(3):1151-1164. doi: 10.1364/BOE.10.001151. eCollection 2019 Mar 1.

Multimodal virtual histology of rabbit vocal folds by nonlinear microscopy and nano computed tomography.

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Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC H3A 0B8, Canada.
Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8, Canada.
Department of Physiology, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, H3G 1Y6, Canada.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada.
School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, McGill University, 2001 McGill College Ave., Montreal, QC H3A 1G1, Canada.
Redpath Museum, McGill University, 859 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC H3A 0C4, Canada.
Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Blvd., Montreal, QC, H4A 3J1, Canada.
Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, 3775 University St., Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada.


Human vocal folds (VFs) possess a unique anatomical structure and mechanical properties for human communication. However, VFs are prone to scarring as a consequence of overuse, injury, disease or surgery. Accumulation of scar tissue on VFs inhibits proper phonation and leads to partial or complete loss of voice, with significant consequences for the patient's quality of life. VF regeneration after scarring provides a significant challenge for tissue engineering therapies given the complexity of tissue microarchitecture. To establish an effective animal model for VF injury and scarring, new histological methods are required to visualize the wound repair process of the tissue in its three-dimensional native environment. In this work, we propose the use of a combination of nonlinear microscopy and nanotomography as contrast methods for virtual histology of rabbit VFs. We apply these methods to rabbit VF tissue to demonstrate their use as alternatives to conventional VF histology that may enable future clinical studies of this injury model.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this article.

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